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Lysyl oxidase-like 2 is increased in asthma and contributes to asthmatic airway remodelling
PDPI Sumatera Utara, 08 Jan 2022 23:32:33

Abstract

Airway smooth muscle cells (ASM) are fundamental to asthma pathogenesis, influencing bronchoconstriction, airway hyper-responsiveness, and airway remodelling. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence tissue remodelling pathways, however, to date no study has investigated the effect of ASM ECM stiffness and crosslinking on the development of asthmatic airway remodelling. We hypothesised that TGFβ activation by ASM is influenced by ECM in asthma and sought to investigate the mechanisms involved. This study combines in vitro and in vivo approaches: human ASM cells were used in vitro to investigate basal TGFβ activation and expression of ECM crosslinking enzymes. Human bronchial biopsies from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors were used to confirm LOXL2 expression ASM. A chronic ovalbumin model of asthma was used to study the effect of LOXL2 inhibition on airway remodelling. We found that ASM cells from asthmatics activated more TGFβ basally than non-asthmatic controls and that diseased cell-derived ECM influences levels of TGFβ activated. Our data demonstrate that the ECM crosslinking enzyme LOXL2 is increased in asthmatic ASM cells and in bronchial biopsies. Crucially, we show that LOXL2 inhibition reduces ECM stiffness and TGFβ activation in vitro, and can reduce subepithelial collagen deposition and ASM thickness, two features of airway remodelling, in an ovalbumin mouse model of asthma. These data are the first to highlight a role for LOXL2 in the development of asthmatic airway remodelling and suggest that LOXL2 inhibition warrants further investigation as a potential therapy to reduce remodelling of the airways in severe asthma.

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